MMPI Interpretation – Anastasya Glezerman, Ph.D.

MMPI-2: Basic Scales




? - cannot say

>30 - invalid, reading difficulty, gross impairment in decision-making, paranoid, obsessive, avoiding the task

0-5 - normal

L - lie

>60 - might be invalid, unsophisticated attempt to present self in favorable light, all false responding

>4raw - rigid, repressed, conforming, naïve, uses denial, low education, clerical profession

2-4 - can admit minor faults, independent, relaxed, honest

<2 - cynical and wary, all true resp.

F - rarely endorsed items

>90 - faking bad, random responding, all true responding

65-80 - psychotic, organic, plea for help, or 6-8/8-6 profile

58-64 - confusion, emotional problems, unconvent. beliefs

calm, conventional

very low - denial of psychopathology, very rigid and conventional, faking good


the same for items after 370

the same

K - subtle defensiveness

>70 - invalid, all false resp., faking good (esp. if F-K <-11)

60-70 - denial of vulnerability and psychopathology, little insight & tolerance, blaming others, no antisocial tendencies

very low - faking bad (esp. if F-K >+11), confusion, conforming, suspicious, week emotional-behavioral controls, distress, low self-esteem, interpersonal problems, all true res.


random responding, confused psychosis


all true responding

all false responding


>80 - somatic delusions

>65 - somatic concerns, vague and epigastric somatic complaints, somatization, pessimism, psychologically naive, narcissism, immaturity, rigidity

58-64 - lesser degree of the above or an actual disorder

38-45 - adequately adjusted, insightful, may appear moralistic and interpersonally detached

<38 - deinvested in their bodies, high risk behaviors

2 - D - Depression

>80 - check for suicidal ideation, severe depression

75-85 - moderate depression, 65-75 - mild

unhappy, low self-esteem, helplesness, hopelesness - depression, withdrawal, psychomotor retardation

D1 - Subjective depression - agitation, meaninglessness, insecurity, low self-esteem

D2 - Psychomotor retardation - immobilized, socially avoidant, motorically slow, deny hostility

D3 - Physical malfunctioning - preoccupation with physical symptoms

D4 - Mental dullness - memory/concentration problems, lack of energy, hopelessness, helplessness

D5 - Brooding - ruminative, unable to control intrusive thoughts, irritable, sensitive to criticism, lack meaning

norm - comfortable, gregarious, active, alert, enthusiastic

very low - lack of impulse control, conflict with societal values, manic state

3 - Hy - Hysteria

>80 - might be conversion reaction

denial of psychological and interpersonal problems and vulnerabilities and specific somatic problems, psychologically naive, narcissistic, neurotic defenses, need attention, suggestible, may have problems with authority, sexual & aggressive acting out or be overly conventional

moderate elevation - pollyannish

Hy1 - Denial of social anxiety - extroverted, good social skills, accept criticism

Hy2 - Need for affection - attention-seeking, trusting, nonconfrontational, deny unpleasant facts and feelings

Hy3 - Lassitude-malaise - weakness, fatigue, attention/concentration problems, seek attention

Hy4 - Somatic complaints - specific (chest pin, nausea, etc.)

Hy5 - Inhibition of aggression - deny hostility

very low - tough-minded, cynical, misantropic or low need for people, narrow range of interests, conforming, show little affect




4 - Pd - Psychopatic deviate

>75 - angry rebelliousness against social mores, shallow, hostile, and manipulative interpersonal relationships, inability to profit from experience or plan ahead, anger at family, antisocial behavior, moodiness, personality disorders, substance abuse, sexual immorality, aggressive outbursts, immaturity, exhibitionism, use projection

65-75 - authority problems

Pd1 - Familial discord - perception of family as unsupportive, distressing, or abusive

Pd2 - Authority problems - assertive, opinionated, rebellious, in trouble at school or with the law

Pd3 - Social imperturbability - socially skilled, seek interaction, are assertive, deny dependency

Pd4 - Social alienation - feel lonely, are self-centered, unhappy, project responsibility, externalize conflicts

Pd5 - Self-alienation - agitated, unhappy, guilt, lack of self-integration, poor concentration, may be alcohol abuse

norm - interpersonally adequate, sincere, concerned for others

very low - conforming, rigid, follow authority, tolerate boredom and mediocrity, males often show lack of interest and mistrust of females

5 - Mf - Masculinity/femininity

>80 - serious sexual problem, in psychiatric patients: males - anxiety, depression, guilt; females - psychosis with hallucinations, delusions, suspiciousness

milder elevation - not traditional gender role (as indicated by vocational and aesthetic interests, sexual role interests, degree of dependency, and activity vs. passivity)

traditional gender role

6 - Pa - Paranoia

>75 - psychosis, paranoia, paranoid schizophrenia with delusions of persecution

moderate elevation - hostile, externalizing, hypervigilant/suspicious, egocentric, self-righteous, angry, sexual deviation or preoccupation is probable

Pa1 - Persecutory ideas - perceive others as threat, feel misunderstood, blame others, project conflicts and responsibility

Pa2 - Poignancy - perceive self as more sensitive and intense in feelings than others, feel misunderstood/lonely, may be stimulation/risk-seeking

Pa3 - Naivete - trusting, deny hostility and ulterior motives in self and others

<40 - underacheivers, interpersonally insensitive, optimistic; in psychiatric pt-s - subtle defensiveness, suspicion, controlled anger, paranoid disorder (in bright pt-s)

7 - Pt - Psychasthenia

>75 - excessive fear and anxiety, might have panic attacks, show general discontent, obsessions, anxiety, indecision, poor concentration, self-devaluation, anxious ruminatios, perfectionistic standards

self-confident, content, ambitious, relaxed toward responsibilities

8 - Sc - Schizophrenia

>90 - significantly disturbed, acute situational distress, identity crisis or faking bad

70-90 - may be a thought disorder: confused thught process, hallusinations, social alienation, depression, dissatisfaction, attention problems, agitation, anxiety, irritability, high standards, guilt, low self-esteem

Sc1 - Social alienation - feel alienated, misunderstood and mistreated, socially avoidant

Sc2 - Emotional alienation - depression/despair or flat affect/apathy, poss. sadistic/masochistic

Sc3 - Lack of ego mastery, cognitive - odd/confused thoughts, feelings of unreality/depersonal.

Sc4 - Lack of ego mastery, conative - feel helpless, inhibited, psychologically weak, worried, withdrawn, depressed, despairing

Sc5 - Lack of ego mastery, defective inhibition - frightened by the sense of impending loss of control, ego-alien affect, hyperactive, labile affect, irritable, poss. amnesic episodes

Sc6 - Bizarre sensory experiences - unusual physical symptoms, depersonalization, unusual thoughts, delusions of influence, hallucinations

very low - happy, accepting of authority, yielding in rel-s, very rigid and conventional thinling, not creative

9 - Ma - Mania

>80 - poss. manic /psychotic episode

moderate elevation - high energy, distractability, lack of persistence, extroversion, stimulation seeking, grandiosity, amorality, may be controlling, aggressive, narcissistic

Ma1 - Amorality - see others as dishonest and self-centered, manipulative, exploitative

Ma2 - Psychomotor acceleration - accelerated motoric/thougt/speech patterns, labile affect, stimulation seeking, hyperactive, may have impulses to shock and harm others

Ma3 - Imperturbability - deny social anxiety, feel irritable toward others, not influenced by them

Ma4 - Ego inflation - grandiose, narcissistic, resent demands from others

very low - little energy, low self-confidence, pessimistic, depressed, reliable, responsible, may be tense and anxious

0 - Si - Social Introver.

Si1 - Shiness/self-consciousness - shy, uncomfortable with people

Si2 - Social avoidance - avoid groups

Si3 - Self/other alienation - low self-esteem, low self-confidence, indecisive, nervous

very low - extroverted, superficial and manipulative in rel-s.

MMPI-2: Code Types



Possible diagnoses

Spike 1

Somatization used to control others, not psychologically-minded.


Somatic disturbance, irritability, agitation, pain, anxiety, pessimism, depression, restlessness, tension, passive-dependent, concrete thinking, do not take responsibility

Somatoform dis., Anxiety dis., Conversion dis., Chronic alcohol intoxication, Female psychosexual dysfunction, Somatization


“Neurotic triad” - elevated in most neuroses, exaggerated need for affection

“Conversion V” - use somatic disorder as a projection channel for problems


acute clinical distress, neurological problems, masked depression


alcoholism, often hostile and acting out


Neurotic symptoms and somatic concerns, shallow rel-s, narcissistic, resentful, pollyannaish or avoidant of problems and responsibilities, attention seeking, irritable, whining, martyr-complexpassive, suggestable, use repression and denial


Possible somatic delusions, depression, suicidal ideation, religious or sexual preoccupation, loud, angry, anxious, restless

Paranoid schizophrenia


Impulsive, spells of aggressiveness, migt have organic brain damage

Somatoform disorder, brain damage


More common in men, problems in meeting responsibilities, self-pity, antiauthoritarian attitudes, somatization, narcissism, alcohol problems, vocational and interpersonal problems

Hypochondriasis, Social phobia, Chronic alcohol intoxication,Substance abuse, Somatization, Affective disorer


Somatic and hypochondriacal preoccupation, projected hostility, might be a defence against emerging psychosis

Somatization, Paranoid schizophrenia


High somatic tension, obsessive patterns focusing on somatic complaints and pain, inferiority feelings, may report sleep problems, depression

Somatization, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Eating disorder


Vague and odd medical complaints, cannot acknowledge aggression, often passive-aggressive, socially inadequate, lack trust in others, alienated, schizoid

Pedophilia, Schizoid Pers. dis., Acute schizophrenia, Affective dis., Borderline


Agitation, irritability, disteress, high ambitions, passive-dependent, lack coherent goals, yet present carefree and competent exterior

Masked depression, PTSD, brain damage, Dependent pers. dis., Sexual masochism


Social discomfort, passive-avoidant, conventional, somatic complaints

Spike 2

Sometimes depression developed out of inability to deal with aggression, rage outbursts, are introverted and reserved

Reactive depression


Apathetic depression, anxiety, overcontrol, somatic complaints, passive dependency, shyness, seek but are stressed by responsibility, acheivement- and power-oriented, sensitive to rejection, avoidant

Female psychosexual dysfunction, Depression, Generalized anxiety dis., Histrionic pers. dis., Panic dis., Affective dis., Bipolar or Cyclothymic dis.


High aspirations and standards, passive-aggressive, dependent

Phobic disorders and sexual dysfunctions


Depression, stimulation-seeking, substance abuse common, social, legal, family problems, immature, egocentric, ambivalent, self-pity, projection, manipulative, impulsive, disturbed family background common, suicidal

Acute alcohol intoxication, Schizophrenia, Psychopathy, Antisocial pers. dis., Unsocialized Conduct dis., Adjustment dis.


Hostile, fearful, worried, avoidant, immature, ruminative, phobic

Passive-aggressive pers., Alcohol abuse


Women: lower SES, interpersonal and social role conflict; men: passive, noncompetitive, sensitive, idealistic, use fantasy, may have mild depression

Passive-aggressive pers. dis., Dependent pers. dis.


Mostly females, physical problems, interpersonal stress, flat affect, paranoid ideation, anger, hostility, dependent, suicidal (manipulative)

Paranoid pers., Major depression, Paranoid schizophrenia, Histrionic, Borderline


Depression, agitation, rumination, difficulties in concentration, somatic complaints, suicidal ideation, obsessive-compulsive patterns, insomnia, passivity, dependency, intrapunitive, emotionally distant, don’t show anger and hostility, rigid thinking, perfectionistic, best therapy candidates

Agoraphobia, Avoidant p.d., Dependent p.d., Depressions, Bipolar, Dysthymia, Alcoholism, Factitious dis., Generalized anxiety, Identity dis., Obsessive-compulsive dis., Psychogenic pain, Schizotypal p.d., Sexual masochism, Stuporous catatonic schizophrenia, Zoophilia, PTSD, Adjustment dis.



Possible diagnoses


Tense, phobic, depressed, suicidal, psychotic/schizoid reactions/episodes


Childhood hurt and deprivation common, confusion, sense of being “broken”, concreteness, social awkwardness, dependency, tension, depression, blackouts, nausea, vomiting, seriously suicidal, sense of being rejected, inadequate

Depression, Bipolar/Cyclothymic dis., Brain damage, PTSD, Generalized anxiety, Explosive, Panic, Schizoaffective dis.


Manic defenses against depression, self-centered, agitated, moody, irritable, anxious, somatic problems, narcissistic, exhibitionistic, competitive

Bipolar, Brain damage, Alcolism


Shy, insecure, socially inept, introverted, depression frequently mild and chronic or episodic

Depression, Avoidant p.d., Schizoid p.d., Bipolar/Cyclothymic

Spike 3

Pollyannish, conventional, deny anger, no insight, use somatization, avoidant


Chronic anger/hostility, impulse control problems, violent outbursts (may be normally overcontrolled), sensitive to criticism, use projection and denial, passive-aggressive, conflicts around dependency, avoid responsibility, masked depressive component

Histrionic, Borderline, Passive-aggressive, avoidant, Dissociative, Intermittent-explosive, Manic, Pedophilia, Psychogenic amnesia, Voyerism, Substance abuse, Rape


Narcissism, denial, immaturity, passivity



Anxiety, tension, rigidity, fear of criticism, supressed hostility emerging in passive or episodic aggression, suspiciousness, egocentricity, projection

Paranoia, Pranoid p.d., Paranoid schizophrenia, Somatization, Affective dis.


“Anticipatory worrier”, responsible, use repression and denial, fear loss of control of anger in self or others

Depersonalization dis., Somatization, Anxiety dis.


Confusion, distress, anxiety attacks, histrionic, narcissistic, dependent, lapses of memory, poor concentration, unusual ideas, loose associations, may have delusions and hallucinations

Multiple personality, Pedophilia, Schizophrenia, Somatization, Psychosis, Affective dis.


Mostly females, extroverted, dramatic, attention seeking, aggressive, easily distort own perceptions, sexual problems, somatic complaints

Somatization, Bipolar, Conversion, Explosive p.d., Psychosis, Histrionic, Panic, passive-aggressive

Spike 4

Problems with law, psychopathic, egocentric, impulsive, superficial rel-s



Antiestablishment, antiauthioritarian, defensive, passively rebellious, ambivalent over dependency/control/sexual identity

Narcissistic, Passive-aggressive, Exhibitionism, Opiate abuse, Aggression


Narcissistic, immature, suspicious, angry, transfer-of-blame, seek attention, reject responsibility, intermittent aggression

Substance abuse, Oppositional p.d., Paranoid schizophrenia, Somatization, Passive-aggressive, Depression, Paranoia


Insensitivity and social alienation may cycle with moodiness and exaggerated interpersonal sensitivity, family problems, counterphobic sexual deviation

Substance abuse, Bipolar/Cyclothymic dis.


Narcissistic, unpredictable, schizoid, antisocial, with underlying dependency and loss of control, perceive others as hostile and dangerous, may have periods of suicidal ideation or aggression, avoid constancy and responsibility

Exibitionism, Pedophilia, Psychopathy, Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Pyromania, Rape, Paranoid schizophrenia, Sexual sadism, Aggressive conduct dis.


Usually very destructive family background, “world is a jungle”


Do not profit from experience, ignore social standards, seek stimulation, are self-centered, have superficial and short relationships, narcissistic, impulsive, acting-out, intellectualize to excess, expect quick results from therapy

Substance abuse, Pathological gambling, Rape, Psychopathy, Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Sexual sadism, Socialized nonaggressive conduct disorder


Usually females, carry a lot of anger they cannot express, shy, evasive, hold grudges, passive-aggressive

Spike 5

Either transient situational disturbance or normal, liberal college males and open homosexuals, rep. self-confidence and good physical and psychological health


Aloof, abrasive, self-righteous, see themselves as perfect


Introspective, excitable, interpersonally sensitive, may have episodes of anxiety and depression, females show many interpersonal problems

Schizoid, Passive-aggressive, Anxiety reactions


usually from abusive or dysfunctional families, may have odd or intrusive thoughts, shy, reserved, have family and sexual problems


Stimulation-seeking, easily bored, like to be in control, see themselves positively


Introspective, schizoid, anxious, problems in sexual rel-s, see themselves as happy and well adjusted

Spike 6

Openly distrustful and suspicious or clinically paranoid


Anxious, tense, guilt-prone, ruminative, hypersensitive, use obsessive-compulsive defenses, misinterpret others

Obsessive-compulsive dis., Multiple phobias, Anxiety reactions, Affective dis., Avoidant dis.


Rebellion, anger, fear of persecution, aggressive acting out, pre- or psychotic adjustment, underlying inferiority, fearfulness, low self-esteem, emotionally unstable

Substance abuse, Paranoid schizophrenia, Brain damage, Borderline, Schizoaffective, Psychopathy, Antisocial p.d.


Where 6&8 are >75 and 7 is <65 - “paranoid valley” - might have paranoid schizophrenia, auditory hallucinations, psychotic behavior, autistic thinkingm blunted affect, rapid and incoherent speech, withdrawal into fantasy, low insight


Hostile, angry, excitable, counterphobic response to strong dependency needs and insecurity, overresponsive to emotional slights

Brain damage, Manic episode, Bipolar, Dysthymic, Paranoid schizophrenia


Shy, easily embarrassed, have distant relationships, but usually well adjusted

Spike 7

Shy, fearful, phobic, obsessive-compulsive, tense


Depressive and obsessive-compulsive features, insecure, distressed, socially inadequate, may deteriorate into schizophrenia with neologisms, bizarre speech, depersonalization, catatonic stupor, may be suicidal

Borderline p.d., Substance abuse, Brief reactive psychosis, Depression, Obsessive-compulsive dis., Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform dis.


Tension, insecurity, anxiety, low self-confidence, interpersonal difficulties

Anxiety dis-s, Agoraphobia, Avoidant p.d.

Spike 8

Odd, eccentric, nonconformist, aloof or psychotic


Narcissistic, hostile, interpersonal problems, outbursts of anger or exuberance, hyperactive, high need to achieve, inability to keep attention on one subject, if schizophrenic may have odd/pressed speech, hallucinations, confusion, prognosis is poor

Acting out, Substance abuse, Agitated catatonic schizophrenia, Brain damage, Depression, Schizoaffective, Disorganised/Paranoid schizophrenia, Mania, Bipolar/Dysthymic dis.


Socially avoidant, nonverbal, indecisive, isolated, show anxiety and escape into fantasy

Schizoid p.d., Avoidant p.d., Schizophrenia

Spike 9

Aggressive acting-out in males, extroverted, sociable, no intimacy, high energy level, may show manic or grandiose episodes, impulsive, rebellious, may be anxious, striving to fulfill their ambitions, easily frustrated

Substance abuse, Antisocial p.d.


Adequate social skills, high energy,self-confident, present as happy and well-adjusted, may be grandiose and a bit manic

Spike 0

Situational adjustment difficulties or schizoid adjustment or mild but chronic distress; they are shy \and easily embarrassed, prone to phobias and fears